Same’s citadel on the hills of Kyatis – Agioi Fanentes and Palaiokastro – Arx Major.
Same’s classical city, following the model of other Greek city-sates of those times, had a strong fortification wall, which reflects the need to protect the citizens from external threats in the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Same’s enemies could even include the other cities of Cephalonia from times to times.
The citadel rises on the hills of “arxmajor” or “Paliokastro” (as mentioned by Livius when describing Same’ siege by the Romans) and Kyatis or “Agioi Fanentes”, east/northeast of the modern town, with a deep valley in between the two hills. The fortification was supported by a tower, cross walls on the two hills’ slopes and a coastal part for the city’s protection on the sea side. The citadel was entered through five gates. Better preserved is the so-called eastern gate of the great citadel. The fortification was a great technical project, which appears to have started in the 5th cent. BC, and then altered with later extensions and repairs, as reflected in the various different building systems, as well as in later interventions that took place over the centuries until even the Medieval times, when major historical events took place and respective influences reached the city from centers of power controlling the Greek cities’ fortunes in those times. The ancient city’s fortification was completed at around 300 BC., when the coastal wall was constructed in order to protect from the sea side. The local limestone was used as building material for time-, effort- and money-saving purposes. The extent and form of the fortification was apparently dictated by the city’s population and the ground formation at those points which secured the best natural support of the walls.
One of the clearest interventions to the citadel is the Agioi Fanentes monastery that was constructed inside the Kyatis citadel. Parts of the ancient walls were immured in the monastery’s peribolos wall, which looked like a fort.